The 99%: Trashy People Talking Trash on Trash Television, or Jersey Shore

the tanned cast of Jersey Shore hanging out on the beachSo, Jersey Shore is back again.  I guess I can't avoid writing about it any longer.

The show has drawn ire from Italian American groups for its stereotypical portrayals and its use of the terms "guido" and "guidette."  It's aired scenes of Snooki getting punched in the face by a man and had castmate Ronnie arrested for aggravated assault. It has survived rumors that the entire cast has herpes and the withdrawal of corporate sponsors.  The show is a mess of sex, violence, ethnic stereotypes, shrill voices, tan bodies, and bumped hair.

Like its predecessor Jerry Springer—with its title sequence featuring a television in a trash can—this is Trash TV, featuring people with lower-class backgrounds, indiscriminate sexual appetites, the capacity for violence, extreme alcohol use, and moral compasses that point to the tanning salon rather than due north.

It's a trash show. Really.

They trash talk. And wear "trashtasic get-ups."

Nicole "Snooki" Polizzi's clothes are trashy—and she writes books full of trash!

A former castmate is referred to by the nickname "Trash Bags."

And, seriously, Snooki wakes up in a garbage can "at least once a month."

This diction? It's not just describing the show and the quality of entertainment it provides.  It's beginning to describe the people.

Trailer trash, white trash—these ways of describing low-income people aren't new.  They're meant to make people quite literally disposable, a way of denying their humanity and their potential to offer anything of value.

With Jersey Shore, though, we get the "trash" without talking about money at all.  What the castmates wear, how they behave, how they style their hair, how they speak, these all communicate to the viewer their lack of cultural capital and, consequently, their social standing. 

If that was in any way unclear, Abercrombie and Fitch spelled it out in a publicity stunt last summer, when they paid Mike "The Situation" Sorrentino to not wear their clothes: "This association is contrary to the aspirational nature of our brand."  Get it, trashy people?  You can't wear our clothes, and you really shouldn't aspire to them; they are simply too far above you.

The castmates play up this image; they embrace and caricature it—but really, what else can they do?  They've become the spectacle, but they aren't the tastemakers.  They're the slut and hoes, the trailer trash, the stereotypes, the embarrassment.  They're the butt of the joke – even if you're President Obama.

More than that, though, is the knowledge that if poor people really are trash—if they're violent and drunk, if they're hypersexual, if they're stupid and uneducated, if they present themselves in a way that can't "pass" as anything but what they are—then we can blame them for their own poverty.  Being poor isn't a function of systemic inequality, then, but laziness, incompetence, and moral laxity.  It becomes easier to look the other way, to dismiss human beings as garbage, while still sitting riveted to our television sets by the spectacle they represent.

Previously: Class Warfare and the Privileged Politics of Mitt Romney, "But look how far we've come!" Downton Abbey and Historical Representations of Social Class

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29 comments have been made. Post a comment.

Is that really the message? I

Is that really the message? I don't watch the show, I've caught clips, I've seen/heard assorted jokes/satires, I'm vaguely familiar with it but certainly not an expert on the Jersey Shore. So my ignorance of the show now established, is that really what one would get out of it? The cast, to the best of my knowledge, are not poor nor have they ever been. They're not uneducated, not scholars of course but I'm assuming at least graduates of public schools in the suburbs. I think (and this is among the reasons I avoid the show) they're demonstrating what having too much time, a bit of money, a bit of fame and not much sense will net.

I second that comment. This

I second that comment.
This is an odd article. Are you equating being poor with "trashy" behavior? It's possible to be poor and not behave as they do.

"With Jersey Shore, though,

"With Jersey Shore, though, we get the 'trash' without talking about money at all."

Like Gretchen mentions in her post, she's talking about "trashy" behavior as it does and does not relate to poverty. I agree with her that many of the behaviors we consider "trashy" are also considered "low class" (i.e., "done by poor people"), but like she says, people society considers "trashy" aren't always poor (e.g., Jersey Shore).

Kelsey Wallace, contributor

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"Dirty Jersey"

I do agree that the show, The Jersey Shore is trashy, defined as "in poor taste." However, I draw the line at deeming or judging the individuals in the show to be "trashy" people. Aside from my awareness of the fact that reality television is scripted and that my values don't allow me to stand in the moral judgment of my fellow human beings, I am entirely uncomfortable and intolerant of stereotyping a group of people based on caricatures constructed by people who should know better-- or who think that they do. I agree with Bitch Media, in so far as this: words, especially words that invoke labels are political, absolutely shape our perspective and unfortunately are tools of lazy thinkers. AND if the Jersey shore might sometimes offend my sensibilities, lazy thinkers offend my intelligence.


I think it's important to note that the entire cast of Jersey Shore has made an incredible amount of money by being "trashy" on television. So, it's no longer about the spectacle of them being "low class" or "low income," it's about what happens when you give "the trash" fame and money and huge amounts of alcohol. I'd like to think that the cast members will come to a point where they realize what they've given up to be famous- and I don't mean their privacy; I mean their dignity.

“This association is contrary

“This association is contrary to the aspirational nature of our brand.” Get it, trashy people? You can’t wear our clothes, and you really shouldn’t aspire to them; they are simple too far above you.

The most compelling part is that the Jersey Shore cast is, quite clearly, "aspirational" - authoring books (however terrible), acting as spokesmodels (however poorly), hosting events (fairly well, I've heard), and participating in publicity interviews. They're more-than riding the Jersey Shore brand; they've created and developed an empire. Worth a mention that A&F doesn't equate "aspirational" with "lifestyle-ambitious", "career-forwarding" or "wealth-collecting", but (I guess) cultural capital. Or maybe that's the irony that was lost on the entire world.

Would you really call the

Would you really call the members of Jersey Shore as coming from low-income families? J-Wow owned her own graphic design firm before going on the show, The Situation comes from a town with a median income of over $100,000. With the exception of one castmember, everyone else comes from an area with a median household income of over $50,000. So I would not say that they have lower-class backgrounds, I'd say that most come from middle-class backgrounds. People just assume that they're from lower-class backgrounds, from working-class families, when they're really not.

It was my understanding that Ambercrombie and Fitch didn't want Mike to wear their clothes was because of his behavior and of the behaviors of the other castmates.

And this whole thing is so ridiculous because they make SO MUCH FREAKING MONEY from this show! I just can't believe you have the gall to say that they're poor, when Mike made FIVE MILLION DOLLARS in 2010. They are NOT poor! They EACH get around $100,00 PER EPISODE. Hardly poor.

They're laughing all the way to their seven-figure bank accounts.

What you should be talking about is how Americans and reality TV rewards bad behavior. Not "poor poor Jersey Shore castmates are from low-class backgrounds (which they're not) are the butt of everyones jokes! Everyone thinks they're trashy!" They like it, they embrace it, they perpetuate it because the more outrageous they act, the more outrageous things they do, the more money they get.

Before, they came from average American families with average incomes, and now? Now they're multi-millionaires with endorsement deals, get paid thousands to do club appearances, book deals, clothing lines, etc etc etc. I hardly feel sorry for them, and they hardly represent or even compare to the kinds of people who appear on shows like Jerry Springer. If you want to make the argument that you're making, choose a different example, because using an example where the people involved are multi-millionaires, your argument holds no water.

I think a more apt example

I think a more apt example would be Teen Mom or 16 and Pregnant. Those people really do come from low-income backgrounds and are made a spectacle of. Those girls don't deserve the criticism they receive. Those girls are victims of "trash TV". Most of them are still living in poverty and are still dealing with immense issues such as the absence of their child's father, absent parents, lack of income, lack of child support, lack of any real support, and MTV films them and then people sit back and criticize, which is why I hate the show.

The point I was really trying

The point I was really trying to make -- and perhaps should have clarified more -- is that it actually doesn't matter how much money the people on Jersey Shore have, or had, or make on the show. They present themselves as "low class" and they capitalize on the simultaneous presentation of lower classness and "trashiness." I'm not saying we should feel sorry for them -- I'm saying that this presentation is a carefully calculated one (probably on MTV's part) to portray certain people a certain way with a certain tone and judgement attached.

I agree, though, that the class implications of Teen Mom are more interesting. Please check out my earlier post: "The 99%: The Hidden Class Politics of Teen Mom 2"

But it's the connection to

But it's the connection to poverty that's incorrect. The cast members of Jersey Shore have nothing to do with poverty, nor do viewers associate them with poverty and low-income. They never did. And it's not like the cast members behaved in a different way before the show, either. They're rich and bad-behaved, not poor and bad behaved. It's like all of the Real Housewives shows, where you have older women behaving in essentially the same way, with the drinking and the fighting. People don't watch the show and think that's how low-income people act.

There's a huge difference between low-income and low-class. Are they classless? I absolutely think so. I hardy think anyone can make the argument that they're all sophisticated. What it is is putting outrageous behavior on television and making money off of it that's the problem, not the assumed or implied association with poverty (only because there isn't one). It's wealthy, young people acting outrageously and in a way most people don't act or wouldn't. I would also argue that the women on Real Housewives are classless as well.

The argument that you're making is correct, but it's the example that's wrong. I would say a better example is Jerry Springer, Montell Williams, Maury, etc, the shows that actually do have people who are low-income acting in a certain way that's equated with trashiness and how it implies that all people who are low-income are "white trash" or "ghetto" or any other negative connotation with low-income. Those shows are exploitative and reinforce negative stereotypes about people who are low-income and how it equates with classlessness and trashiness.

Jersey Shore, however, reinforces stereotypes about other kinds of people, namely those from New York and New Jersey, specifically of Italian descent, which is what I have a problem with. People see the show and think that's how people from those areas and with those ethnic backgrounds behave that way. But that's a whole other issue.

I disagree. They aren't

I disagree. They aren't poor, but they weren't rich until the show took off after the first season. This isn't about rich people behaving badly.

But as far as the cultural and social capital they display? It's stereotypically low. You're conflating money and class, which is really problematic. They have money, but they don't have the class background. In fact, I think some of them act out a class status that is lower than the ones they have access to (based on the cultural capital they posses, rather than the money they now have). It's not about poverty, that's true -- it's about a class hierarchy that is built on more than money.

No, they weren't rich when

No, they weren't rich when the show started, but they were hardly poor. I'd say throughly middle class.

"You're conflating money and class, which is really problematic. They have money, but they don't have the class background."

I'm not talking about class background, I'm talking about class as in the adjective, as in sophistication. I don't think anyone would say that the cast members of Jersey Shore act sophisticated. And they're worth millions of dollars. In fact, I don't believe that in order to be considered classy you have to have money or come from a wealthy background. Like I mentioned, look at the Real Housewives franchise. Some of the most despicable people on TV, totally classless, yet totally wealthy, with the class background.

The thing is, people often have a different personality on TV versus in real life. I mentioned above that one of the cast mates had her own graphic design business. Another was (and still is) a successful DJ, and another was a manager at a gym. They were average people before the show, throughly middle-class. It's not like they took these low-income people from poor areas who already behaved that way, stuck them in a house, and filmed them.

In regards to class hierarchy, I was always taught that it didn't matter where you came from or how much money you have, it's how you behave is what matters. And the reason why it's so successful is because people take pleasure out of watching people behave outrageously in a manner they themselves would not.

"I was always taught that it

"I was always taught that it didn't matter where you came from or how much money you have, it's how you behave is what matters"

But it does. And how you behave has a lot to do with where you came from and how much money you have, anyway.

"I'm not talking about class background, I'm talking about class as in the adjective, as in sophistication. "

Yes, but I'm talking about class background. That's the point of the article. And "sophistication" is a classed value, anyway; what is sophisticated and refined are those activities/behaviors/preferences that display a higher class background and knowledge base.

Again, it doesn't matter how much money they have, although I don't think from my research that all of the class members were as solidly middle class as you're arguing. It's the class portrayal that's the problem. It's the flagrant displays of low cultural capital paired with the "trashy" label that leads to dismissing broad populations as unworthy of serious consideration.

"But it does. And how you

"But it does. And how you behave has a lot to do with where you came from and how much money you have, anyway."

In some cases, yes. I have met so many people from wealthy, upper-class backgrounds who act very poorly and in outrageous manners, and others who come from poor backgrounds who don't.

I guess I don't mean "sophisticated" in the strict sense of the word, I'm talking more like put-together. Nice. Don't get drunk and get into fights.

To me, it's not their class background or cultural capital that makes them unworthy of my attention, it's that they're reality TV show actors who make a living (and are millionaires) by being outrageous and promoting outrageous behavior. They're famous for being horrible people, wealthy for doing horrible things, and it gives young viewers the impression that they too can become millionaires, be famous, and have their own TV show if they act in a similar manner. It's the decline of Western Civilization, and it's not just them, it's all realty television that doesn't contribute to society at all. That's my problem with it, and that's why people call it trash TV. It's completely void of any worthiness to society. There is zero contribution.

Basically, almost reality TV is trashy, whether it be the dating shows, the Kardashians, Real Housewives, etc. The only exceptions are when they're meant to be learning tools and they contribute to society in a positive manner. It used to be that one had to be talented or intelligent or have mastered some kind of art to be recognized by society, but now? All you need to do is get on a reality show, be drunk the whole time, get into fights, and have tons of sex with strangers, and boom, you're famous and have money.

I feel like I have to give

I feel like I have to give another example when I talk about trashy people. Dance Moms, Toddlers and Tiaras.... all trashy people. Why? They exploit their children. I consider that to be very trashy and in very poor taste and borderline child abuse. It has nothing to do with socioeconomic status or what economic class they come from, it's how they behave, i.e., how they treat their children as commodities. That's trashy. Yelling at your kid the way those moms do? Total trash.

poor white trash speaking

"Trashy" is quite a versatile slur. It contains many layers of racist, sexist, and classist judgment. As a poor Appalachian, I have often heard the word used to describe women (myself included) who act "too frequently" on sexual urges, especially when those urges cross race boundaries. Countless times my male peers have used the word "trash" to condemn a white woman who dares to sleep with a black man. It only makes sense that folks would call the women of Jersey Shore trashy-- not because of their socioeconomic status, but because all of their sexual encounters are in the national spotlight. Not to mention the crime of proudly flaunting their ethnicity. However, I won't even begin to tackle the issue of Italian American representation; my partner is Italian and expresses extreme discomfort when the show comes on. I don't feel that I could understand or fairly present all the dimensions of racism in the show.

In the low-income community where I live, "trashy" is used by poor people to insult other poor people who do not conform to the "noble, hard-working poor" stereotype. People who receive food stamps or "shack up" instead of marrying (something I'm rather fond of doing) are deemed less respectable. To call someone trash is to discredit them, sweep them under the rug. I sometimes tell others right from the start that I am poor white trash and proud of it, because I cannot bear the way they search my life for "unacceptable" behaviors. I feel that the word should belong to those of us who have spent our lives running from it. Do the cast of Jersey Shore have a right to it? Maybe, maybe not.

While I don't exactly like Jersey Shore, the language critics use to dissect it is hurtful. Some of the comments for this article disturb me, too. The issue isn't the show itself, or how much money the stars have. "Trashy" is a slur, and it should *not* be used to describe something in bad taste. It is a weapon that has been used to shame, dehumanize, and disempower poor people, especially poor women. I am frustrated beyond belief that MTV markets the show in this way, and I am devastated that so many folks describe the show in those terms. The fear of becoming "trash" hovered over my life until I developed a strong sense of self. Although Snooki et. al. are wealthy, the aggressive classism inherent in the media's complaints definitely needed to be addressed. Thank you for this article.

(Dorothy Allison has written about the concept of "trash" with great honesty and insight. I recommend her work for anyone interested and would love suggestions for further reading.)


I appreciate that Bitch tries to assess pop culture analytically, but this piece is short on critical analysis and long on indignant alarmism. These people are trash because they exploit themselves and each other- people of all races, genders, socio-economic statuses and cultures do that, all over the world, and have as long as humans have existed. Perhaps the intent of the article was that by casting mostly Italian-Americans, it presents a false representation of that culture. The few times I've caught the show, however, I didn't see Italian-American people or traditions devalued, I saw "douchey" people mistreating women, saying ignorant things, and generally being shallow jerks. Those are assessments of specific individuals, purportedly playing themselves. They have the means to act however they want; there is no oppression at work here. The conflation with poor people was ill-considered at best, and as other comments point out, completely divorced from the representations in the show. I find it particularly strange that there aren't any specific examples of specific incidents to support the article's confusing thesis.

This is not the first time I've seen a Bitch article distort an issue, receive feedback in the comments completely negating the poorly-articulated premise of the article, to which the writer responds by sticking to her unsubstantiated guns. That's not an analysis, that's sophistry. Nothing wrong with feeling what you feel, but bear in mind that anti-feminists charge Feminists with false outrage over real issues because of logical pretzels like this. Instead of seeking offense where none exists, I would rather see more space devoted to cultural representations of women that are actually problematic and reading real women's experiences within that context. I remain a devoted reader because I support Bitch's Feminist values, but I cannot support creating a straw (wo)man to fill column inches when there are real issues ripe for analysis (for instance, the latent and manifest forms of slut-shaming on the show, if you're looking to take down JS specifically).

"The conflation with poor

"The conflation with poor people was ill-considered at best, and as other comments point out, completely divorced from the representations in the show."

Perhaps should have included more examples of what I meant by their class displays, but I don't think that makes it invalid. Most of the criticisms in the comments have reflected a misunderstanding of what is meant by social class, which is related to, but not entirely tied to, money. I'll say it again: it doesn't matter how much money they have. It matters how they present themselves and how the rest of society responds to them.  And that is a classed presentation.

The reason I didn't develop this that much was because I hoped it would be understood -- now I see that I should have provided more background. But the intent of the article was to criticize the language used outside of the show to talk about the show -- the labeling of people as "trashy." This is the practice I was most criticizing and most trying to challenge. It seems to be a practice that you have no problem with, however, given that you say, "These people are trash."

This term ITSELF is a classed term, and it's nearly always used in that way. In fact, it is used so much in that way that it still carries that connotation, even when you're not discussing poor people. This isn't alarmism, this isn't a straw man, I'm not seeking offense where none exists. This is a slur that is used against poor people the same way "bitch" has used against women.  And I think that's worth challenging.

Are there other things wrong with Jersey Shore? Yes, obviously. We could talk about slut-shaming, we could talk about the representations of masculinity on the show (which Bitch has). But the fact that there are other real issues doesn't mitigate the fact that I think the show is discussed in really classist terms. My feminism is not just about women and their portrayals, but about considering the underlying hierarchies based on race and class AND gender that define the experiences of so many.  The purpose of this series is to consider those intersections with class, which should not be peripheral to serious feminist inquiry.

Ad hominem

Since you seem to want to bring my character into it (even though I was very careful not to make this personal), I grew up in a house with a single working mother raising three kids. People who are PAID to act like misogynists and treat others just plain cruelly for a living are an insult to the hard work my mother still does, and the work I've done to become an attorney after leaving home and supporting myself at 17 (and fwiw, I now do pro bono work for women in custody and child support disputes). I am the first to stand up against classism; this ain't it. Real working- and middle-class families do not behave like the people on JS (because, again, the cast is PAID to be obscene), and perhaps that's what you were trying to get at. That you seem to want align the violence and misogyny portrayed on the show as being about class is confusing. Maybe you're trying to invoke the (offensive) notion of "new money." I don't know because you have zero examples/support/evidence in your post. Analytical writing demands intellectual integrity, which in turn demands a factual basis for your argument. Without providing us with the facts you're analyzing, we can't get on the same page as you. We want to see your point, honestly; help us get there.

I don't really know how I

I don't really know how I brought your character into it; I certainly wasn't trying to. You did say that they were trash, which does imply that you think that's acceptable terminology. I think that's classist. You don't, because you're saying that they're trash for reasons other than their social class. I'm saying that that language is loaded which classist implications that it can't escape, regardless of intent. We just disagree, here, which is fine. There's always room for debate around these issues.

And, yes, I am precisely trying to invoke the notion of "new money" which isn't necessarily offensive when it's used to describe conceptually those with economic capital, but without a privileged background. Again, that's the point: class is more than money. "New money" people have the cash without the high cultural and social capital. Indeed, the cultural capital the cast exhibits (their language, their accents, their clothes, their styling habits, their spending priorities) mark them as out-of-sync with traditional class hierarchies. The Abercrombie and Fitch example that I did use is telling because no matter how badly a traditional celebrity behaved, A&F wouldn't launch a publicity stunt to ask them to not wear their clothing. I believe that's based on class, not behavior -- or, I believe it's based on behavior to the extent that it reveals class background.

Because I was trying to focus on the language used to discuss the show, the examples I provided were precisely examples of that language. I feel that I established how we talk about the show, and then described how this language has, traditionally, been used against poor people. There is more to be said, there are more examples to be used, but that was the scope of what I was trying to say.

It's not classist if you call

It's not classist if you call everyone who acts that way "trashy", regardless of social standing and money.

The women on the Real Housewives are trashy. They're upper class, most coming from wealthy families and were raised wealthy. The women on the Bad Girls Club are trashy, and some come from middle-to-upper class families and backgrounds. Why are they trashy? Because they get paid to act that way. It's dishonest, and it's ruining our society.


"People who are PAID to act like misogynists and treat others just plain cruelly for a living are an insult to the hard work my mother still does, and the work I've done to become an attorney..."

Are you saying it isn't fair that they earn so much money for partying while others earn it by working? Or are you condemning the JS cast because they are classist? If they are simply acting out their perception of the poor ("trashy"), then I would agree that they are prejudiced and icky. I'm not sure if their outrageous behavior is natural or an affectation.

I didn't think the article had anything to do with the actual socioeconomic status of the actors. It was an analysis of the media's use of slurs in criticizing JS. And for this subject, the author had ample documentation. Time and time again, reporters fling around the word "trash" without considering the classism inherent in the word; most of those writers were as oblivious as the high school kids I've heard yelling "faggot" and "gay" at each other. We need to raise awareness about the hurtfulness of "trashy," especially when poverty is so much more present.

By the way, when you said: "Real working- and middle-class families do not behave like the people on JS (because, again, the cast is PAID to be obscene).... " I had a really funny scene in my head about telling my drunk, mentally ill, sexually active parents that they weren't acting like a "real" working class family. It made me giggle. Snooki ain't got nothing on my Mama.

I actually agree with the

I actually agree with the idea that the cast is effectively marketed as disposable people. For one thing they exchanged Angelina for Dina. So they litterally could be anybody of that "trashy" stereotype. The other thing is that I watched this show h8er this summer ( I think it's on the CW) and it had Snooki on it. The premise of the show is that Snooki is trying to convince this guy that she is actually a real human being with multiple facets and that a lot of what she does, and says on the show is to make the show more funny and interesting to viewers. I think the guy litterally called her trash. The regular Joe was especially pissed that Snooki made as much or more per episode than his retired, cop father made a year. I think he talked about how unfair it was that, "you people" are making so much money. Again promoting the idea that some poor people are more deserving than others (you trashy, lazy, stupid drunk people).

Excellent examples, and

Excellent examples, and thanks for sharing! I was really trying to focus on the language used to talk about these people. However in poor taste their behaviors may be, you're right that this disposability is problematic.


The premise of that show makes me sad. I like humans.

Kick-Ass Commentary

In the commentary for Kick-Ass, Matthew Vaughn describes generating the living spaces of the villain (played by Mark Strong). In it he talks about how typically in a mob movie the villain, no matter their income, are portrayed as being dopey and without class. They don't understand art, they don't wear the right clothes, a lot of class markers are missing. He comments that this is some sort of morality play about how since they didn't "earn" their money that they don't have any class. So in his film, Vaughn attempted to give his villain as much class as possible. He is a ruthless man, but he is supposed to be cultured.

I don't like thinking about jersey shore.

Ha! I really don't either,

Ha! I really don't either, but the way the show is discussed is so charged that I felt I should acknowledge it.

I actually haven't seen Kick-Ass, but I'll be sure to check it out. I did write a piece on wealth and villainy (The 99%: Villainy and the Very Rich on Revenge, because I think there is a weird relationship between the two. Villains can be unlikable because they're rich, or because their rich but uncultured, or because they're rich and cultured but ruthless. They just have to be unlikable in some way, and it's odd how often class becomes a factor in that unlikability.

Yes, class is an issue

Class is involved regardless of what the incomes or family circumstances of the cast members were prior to the show becoming a success. The "Guido" label/stereotype has always involved some class and income implications. I don't think it is associated with poverty, but there is this idea that this is not how nice, white, suburban, middle class people act. The idea of calling someone "low class" can not be disconnected from economic class. That is why the term is an insult, because people in the higher classes are not supposed to act like those in the lower classes. Also a lot of Guido "culture" emulates or is similar to" urban" culture in many ways, which is automatically denigrated in a classist manner. There are people who are promiscuous, degrade women, and engage in other similar behaviors of the cast, but that alone doesn't always result in them constantly being called trashy and low class. I think this has more to do with the cultural designations applied to them in addition to their behavior. I do think ethnicity and geographic prejudices also play a role, and these coexist with and reinforce the class element.

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